What is the difference between tannin and tannic acid?

The main difference between tannic acid and tannic acid is that the term tannic acid is used to denote a group of organic compounds , while tannic acid is a type of tannic acid.

Tannins are organic compounds that fall under the category of polyphenols. These compounds contain several phenolic groups in the same molecule. Tannic acid is a special type of tannin. Tannins are mainly found in plant tissues; hence we can call them polyphenolic biomolecules.

Key areas covered

1. What is tannin - definition, properties, uses 2. What is tannic acid - definition, properties, uses 3. What is the difference between tannin and tannic acid - comparison of the main differences

key terms

Tannin, tannic acid, polyphenol Difference Between Tannin and Tannic Acid - Comparative Summary

What is tannin

The term tannin describes a group of polyphenols that bind to proteins and can precipitate them. These are organic compounds that can react with amino acids and alkaloids . These tannins are also known as astringent compounds. In addition, these compounds are found in a wide variety of plant tissues. They play an important role in protecting plants from predation and help regulate plant growth. In addition, tannins occur in unripe fruits; Astringency of tannins cause their dryness and wrinkling.

In addition, tannins can be divided into three main groups: hydrolyzable tannins, phlorotannins and condensed tannins. All of these tanning groups are polymeric structures with monomer units. That is; the monomer of hydrolyzable tannins is gallic acid and the monomer of phlorotannins is phloroglucinol. Meanwhile, the monomer of the condensed tannins is flavan-3-ol. In addition, these three tannin classes also have different sources. eg for hydrolyzable tannins the source is plants, while the source for phlorotannins is brown algae; for condensed tannins, the source is heartwood.

Difference Between Tannin and Tannic Acid

Figure 1: General appearance of tannic acid

There are also three types of methods that can be used to determine the presence of tannins in a particular sample. They are the alkaloid precipitation method, the Goldbeater skin test, and the ferric chloride test. Here one can observe alkaloids using the alkaloid precipitation method, which precipitate tannins and other polyphenols. We can also use this method as a quantitative analysis. In the Goldbeater skin test, the skin of the Goldbeater is dipped in hydrochloric acid and rinsed with water; this is followed by treatment with iron (II) sulfate solution. And this test gives a blue-black color when tannin is present.

What is tannic acid?

Tannic acid is an organic molecule with the chemical formula C 76 H 52 O 46 . It is a special type of tannin that can be called a polyphenol due to the presence of multiple phenyl groups. It has a weak acidity; therefore tannic acid is a weak acid. This weak acid is due to the presence of several phenolic groups.

Key difference - tannin vs. tannic acid

Figure 2: Chemical structure of tannic acid

In addition, tannic acid has many uses. We can use tannic acid as a mordant in the dyeing process in making cellulosic fiber shapes such as cotton. We can also use tannic acid on wood with a low tannin content. In addition, we can use tannic acid on metal objects to prevent corrosion. In addition, tannic acid is also useful in the food industry; B. in wine clarification, beer clarification, color stabilization, etc.

Difference Between Tannin and Tannic Acid

definition

The term tannin refers to a group of polyphenols that bind to proteins and can precipitate them, while tannic acid is an organic molecule with the chemical formula C 76 H 52 O 46 .

properties

Tannin is characterized by the presence of several phenyl groups, astringency, acidity, etc., while tannic acid is characterized by weak acidity, solubility in water, etc.

Used

In addition, tannin plays an important role in protecting plants from predation and helps regulate plant growth. Tannic acid, on the other hand, can be applied to low-tannin wood, which aids the reaction with chemical stains, and can be added as a stain for dye production, etc.

diploma

In summary, tannic acid is a special type of tannin. It is an organic molecule that is similar to the other members of the tanning group. Therefore, the main difference between tannin and tannic acid is that the term tannin is used to denote a group of organic compounds, while tannic acid is a type of tannin.

Reference:

1. "Tannin". Tannin - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics , www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/tannin.

Image courtesy:

1. “Tannin in plastic container” By Simon A. Eugster - Own work (CC BY 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia 2. “Tannic acid” By Michał Sobkowski - (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia

About the author: Madhusha

Madhusha is a BSc (Hons) graduate in Biological Sciences and is currently doing her Masters in Industrial and Environmental Chemistry. Her areas of interest for writing and research include biochemistry and environmental chemistry.