What is the difference between Mesopotamia and Egypt?

The main difference between Mesopotamia and Egypt is that Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Fertile Crescent, while Egypt is on the banks of the Nile.

Mesopotamia and Egypt are two of the earliest ancient civilizations based on rivers. Both originated between 3500 and 3000 BC. As great civilizations. Because of their relative proximity, they have a lot in common. Though they had similarities, certain elements kept their unique identity.

Key areas covered

1. What is Mesopotamia - definition, facts, developments 2. What is Egypt - definition, facts, developments 3. Similarities between Mesopotamia and Egypt - overview of the similarities 4. Difference between Mesopotamia and Egypt - comparison of the most important differences

key terms

Egypt, Mesopotamia Difference Between Mesopotamia and Egypt - Summary of Comparison

What is Mesopotamia?

Mesopotamia was in what we now know as the Middle East, particularly in what is now Kuwait, Iraq, Turkey and Syria. The term 'Mesopotamia' comes from the two old words 'meso' (which means in the middle ) and 'potamos' (which means river ). As this name suggests, Mesopotamia lay in the fertile valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This region produced some of the earliest human civilizations in the world, including Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Akkadian civilizations. Mesopotamia is also known as the "cradle of civilization".

Compare Mesopotamia and Egypt

The first human settlements in Mesopotamia occurred in the Paleolithic . Around 14,000 BC The Mesopotamians lived in small settlements with round houses. A few thousand years later, with the development of agriculture and livestock, these houses became part of a farming community. Its location, particularly its proximity to the Tigris and Euphrates, also gave rise to irrigation techniques that contributed to the development of agriculture. In fact, Mesopotamia was one of the first places to develop agriculture. Since it was at the crossroads of the Indus Valley and Egyptian civilization, it saw a mixture of cultures and languages ​​that also had a lasting impact on trade, writing, religion, technology and law. Some of the most important developments in the history of mankind, including the cultivation of the first cereal crops, the invention of the wheel and the development of italics, mathematics and astronomy, are considered in Mesopotamia.

What is egypt

The land we know today as Egypt was the home of ancient Egyptian civilization. Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile. This was mainly due to the annual flooding of the Nile, which ensured rich soil for growing crops.

Historians have divided the history of civilization into three "kingdom" periods: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom. There are shorter interim periods separating these kingdoms, and these interim periods are periods during the mighty kingdom when there was no unified political power. But it is important to note that the foundations of Egyptian civilization were laid even before the Old Kingdom.

Mesopotamia vs. Egypt

Ancient Kingdom of Egypt (2686-2181 BC) - During this period, Egypt was a single unified political entity. Rulers built the first pyramids as tombs and monuments for their predecessors, for example the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx in Giza. The builders of the pyramids were not slaves, but farmers who worked in the off-season. During this time, the Egyptians also started building ships.

Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2000-1700 BC) - After the collapse of the government at the end of the Old Kingdom, there were political conflicts, famines and minor civil wars. Kings of the Middle Kingdom restored Egypt's stability, resulting in a resurgence of art, literature, and monumental building projects. From that time on, the kings maintained a stable, well-trained army.

New Kingdom of Egypt (1550-1077 BC) - This period marks the most prosperous era of Egyptian civilization and is the height of its power. During this time, the rulers of Egypt assumed the title of Pharaoh. Pharaohs expanded their regions and started large construction projects.

Similarities Between Mesopotamia and Egypt

  • Mesopotamia and Egypt are two of the earliest ancient civilizations based on rivers.
  • Both Mesopotamians and Egyptians believed in polytheism (multiple gods).
  • They had similar social structures and saw many developments in areas such as irrigation, agriculture, architecture, etc.

Difference Between Mesopotamia and Egypt

Geographical position

Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Fertile Crescent, while Egypt lay on the banks of the Nile.

Political organization

Mesopotamia can be described as a loose collection of separate states, while Egypt was a single political entity.

Monumental architecture

Egyptian civilization is known for monumental architectural feats like pyramids. Although the Mesopotamians were the first to develop the world's first known arches, pillars, and covered buildings, they mainly used adobe as a building material.

To write

The Mesopotamians invented a writing system called cuneiform and had a tradition of epic literature that produced important works such as "Epic of Gilgamesh," the oldest known written history in the world. The Egyptians, on the other hand, invented their own system of hieroglyphics based on images.

developments

The most important developments in Mesopotamian civilization include the planting of the first crops of grain, the invention of the wheel and the sail, and the development of italics, mathematics and astronomy. Major developments in Egyptian civilization include the creation of the solar calendar and the invention of papyrus sheets and ink, clocks and cosmetic makeup. The Egyptians also made great advances in medicine, including the invention of surgical tools and mummification.

diploma

Mesopotamia lay between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Fertile Crescent, while Egypt lay on the banks of the Nile. The most important developments in Mesopotamian civilization include the planting of the first crops of grain, the invention of the wheel and the sail, and the development of italics, mathematics and astronomy. On the other hand, major developments in Egyptian civilization include the creation of the solar calendar and the invention of papyrus sheets and ink, clocks, cosmetic makeup, surgical tools, and mummification. So this is the summary of the difference between Mesopotamia and Egypt.

Reference:

1. " Ancient Mesopotamian Civilization ". Khan Academy. 2. " Ancient Egypt ". History.com, A&E Television Networks, October 14, 2009.

Image courtesy:

1. " N-Mesopotamia and Syria English " By Goran tek-en (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia2. " Egypt, Cairo, the pyramids of Giza, pyramids of Giza, Cair, Egyptian pyramids, wonders of the world, dessert " (CC0) via Piqsels

About the author: Hasa

Hasa holds a BA in English, French and Translation Studies. She is currently reading for a Masters in English. Her areas of interest include literature, language, linguistics and also food.