What is the Difference Between Blood Sugar and Glucose?

The main difference between blood sugar and glucose is that blood sugar refers to the glucose that is carried by the bloodstream to all cells in the body, but glucose is a simple sugar that is the most common monosaccharide . In addition, blood sugar is the most important molecule in the generation of energy through cellular respiration . Photosynthesis in plants is the biochemical reaction in which glucose is synthesized, which is then stored in the form of starch in plants and glycogen in animals.  

Blood sugar and glucose are two forms of one of the simplest and most important types of monosaccharides in both animals and plants. Its main function is also to serve as the main source of energy in cellular respiration .  

Key areas covered  

1. What is blood sugar - definition, characteristics, meaning 2. What is glucose - definition, characteristics, meaning 3. What are the similarities between blood sugar and glucose - overview of the common characteristics 4. What is the difference between blood sugar and glucose - comparison the main differences

key terms  

Blood sugar, cellular respiration, glucagon, glucose, photosynthesis, starch

Difference Between Blood Sugar And Glucose - A Comparative Summary

What is blood sugar?  

Blood sugar, or blood sugar, is the glucose that is present in the bloodstream of animals. Its main function is to penetrate the body's metabolizing cells, which are used as a source of energy. That is; Glucose is involved in cell respiration and produces approximately 38 ATPs per molecule. However, animals are typically heterotrophic and therefore do not produce glucose in their body. Hence, dietary carbohydrates serve as the main source of glucose in the animal body. In this process, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down the carbohydrates in food into glucose and other minor monosaccharides.

Difference Between Blood Sugar and Glucose

Figure 1: Idealized curves of human blood sugar and insulin concentration over the course of a day with three meals

In addition, the blood sugar level is the concentration of glucose in the blood at a given point in time. About 4 g of glucose is present in the blood of a 70 kg person. However, in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis, the blood sugar level is strongly regulated by the action of two hormones; Insulin and glucagon. Here, insulin reduces the high glucose level to normal by storing glucose in the form of glycogen in liver cells and skeletal cells. Conversely, glucagon increases low glucose levels to normal at the expense of glucagon stores in skeletal muscles and liver cells. What is important is that a higher level of glucose in the blood causes hyperglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia leads to diabetes mellitus .  

What is Glucose?  

Glucose is the simplest and most common form of monosaccharide in both plants and animals. In addition, all living organisms use glucose as the main fuel in their cellular respiration. However, because plants are autotrophic plants, they undergo photosynthesis to synthesize glucose. And they store excess glucose in the form of starch and amylopectin. In addition, plants produce one of the most important structural polysaccharides , cellulose, by using glucose as a monomer. But heterotrophs, like animals, use the glucose produced by plants.

Blood sugar vs. glucose

Figure 2: Isomeric forms of glucose

In addition, glucose occurs naturally in two forms of stereoisomers ; D-glucose and L-glucose which are enantiomers of each other. What is important is that D-glucose or dextrose is the main form in nature, while L-glucose occurs randomly. Glucose also occurs in two forms of structural isomers; open chain form and cyclic form. Here , the latter is the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde carbon atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In general, the cyclic form is the predominant structure of glucose in a solution.  

Similarities Between Blood Sugar and Glucose   

  • Blood sugar and glucose are two forms of one of the simplest and most important types of carbohydrates in both animals and plants.   
  • Your molecular formula is   C 6 H 12 O 6, w hich a monosaccharide by photosynthesis in plants synthesized.  
  • Their main function is to act as the main source of energy in the process of cellular respiration.   
  • Otherwise they serve as a storage molecule; Starch in plants and glucagon in animals.  

What is the Difference Between Blood Sugar and Glucose?  

definition  

Blood sugar refers to the main sugar found in the blood of humans and other animals, ingested through food, and used as the main source of energy. Glucose refers to a simple sugar that is important as the main source of energy in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.  

Appear  

Blood sugar occurs only in the blood of animals. But glucose is found in the blood and cells of animals, and it is found in the cells of plants.  

meaning  

Blood sugar is the form of glucose carried in the body through the bloodstream, while glucose is a simple sugar, which is the most common monosaccharide.  

roll

Blood sugar is important for the production of energy through cellular respiration. However, glucose, which is produced in plants through photosynthesis, is stored in the form of starch in plants and in the form of glycogen in animals.  

Effect of them in higher levels  

High blood sugar levels lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus, the persistent hyperglycemia. On the other hand, by acting as a monomer, high levels of glucose lead to the synthesis of common forms of polymers such as cellulose and starch in plants and glucagon in animals.  

diploma  

Glucose is the simplest and most common monosaccharide found in plants and animals. In general, plants synthesize glucose through photosynthesis and store it in the form of starch, which is then used in cellular respiration. Blood sugar is a form of glucose that circulates in animals' bloodstream. Its main function is to provide glucose to the cells in metabolizing tissues in the body. Glucose serves as the main source of energy for cell respiration. In addition, excess glucose is stored in animals in the form of glycogen. Glucose also serves as a precursor for cellulose and many other carbohydrates. Hence, the main difference between blood sugar and glucose is their occurrence and importance.  

References:

1. TheSarkissian, Carol. "Blood sugar (blood sugar): How it is made, how it is used, healthy values." WebMD , WebMD, August 9, 2018, available here.

Image courtesy:

1. "Suckale08 fig3 Glucose-Insulin Day" By Jakob Suckale, Michele Solimena - Solimena Lab and Review Suckale Solimena 2008 Frontiers in Bioscience, PDF preprint from Nature Precedings, original data: Daly et al. 1998 PMID: 18508724 ( CC BY 3.0 ) via Commons Wikimedia 2. “DL-Glucose” by NEUROtiker - Own work ( Public Domain ) via Commons Wikimedia

About the author: Lakna

Lakna, a graduate in molecular biology and biochemistry, is a molecular biologist and has a broad and strong interest in discovering things related to nature