Key difference - single vs. double vs. triple bonds
Chemical bonds hold atoms together in a molecule by building forces between the electrons and nuclei of two atoms. Chemical reactions are controlled by the creation or breaking of chemical bonds. There are different types of bonds such as covalent, ionic, van der Waals etc. The properties of the bonds vary depending on various aspects such as the type of molecule, the solid type ( crystalline or amorphous ) etc. Covalent bonds are created through the sharing of formed two or more electrons . The number of shared electrons between atoms determines the number of bonds; whether single, double or triple room. Hence, single, double and triple bonds are covalent bonds . The main difference between a single double and a triple bond is the number of electrons they share. When the common number is a pair of electrons, the bond is a single bond, while two atoms linked by two pairs (four electrons) form a double bond. Triple bonds are formed by sharing three pairs of electrons (six atoms). These dividing electrons are commonly referred to as valence electrons . This article will look at
1. What is a single bond? - definition, properties, examples
2. What is a double bond? - definition, properties, examples
3. What is a triple bond? - definition, properties, examples
4. What is the difference between simple double and triple bonds?
What is a single bond?
A single bond is formed by sharing a pair of valence electrons between two neighboring atoms. A single bond is the simplest form of covalent bond in which each atom supplies one valence electron. These valence electrons are located in the outermost shell of the atoms. Here the negatively charged common electrons are attracted by the positively charged atomic nuclei. These tensile forces hold the atoms together. This arrangement is called a single bond. The molecules with single bonds are less reactive than molecules with multiple bonds. In addition, they are weaker than multiple bonds and, due to the low tensile force between the atoms, have longer bond lengths compared to multiple bonds. A single bond is denoted by just a single hyphen; Ex: C C. Alkanes such as methane, ethane, propane are some examples of compounds with single bonds.
What is a double bond?
A double bond is created by sharing two pairs of valence electrons that are in the outermost orbit of the atoms. Compounds with double bonds are highly reactive than compounds with single bonds, but less reactive than compounds with triple bonds. Double bonds are indicated by two parallel lines; Ex: C = C. Some examples of compounds with double bonds include alkenes such as ethylene, propene, carbonyl compounds (C = O), azo compounds (N = N), imines (C = N), and sulfoxides (S = O).
What is a triple bond?
When two atoms share three pairs of valence electrons (six valence electrons), the established bonds are called triple bonds. Triple bonds are the strongest and most reactive covalent bonds. Compared to single and double bonds, triple bonds have the shortest bond length due to the higher tensile force between two atoms. A triple bond is indicated by three parallel lines between two atoms; Example: C≡C. Some examples of compounds with triple bonds are nitrogen gas (N≡N), cyanide ions (C≡N), acetylene (CH≡CH), and carbon monoxide (C≡O).
Difference between simple double and triple bonds
Single bond : A single bond is formed by sharing a pair of valence electrons.
Double bond: A double bond is created by sharing two pairs of valence electrons.
Triple bond: A triple bond is formed by sharing three pairs of valence electrons.
Single bond: Single bonds are less reactive.
Double bond: Double bonds are moderately reactive.
Triple bond: Triple bonds are highly reactive.
Single bond: Single bonds have a long bond length.
Double bond: Double bonds have a moderate bond length.
Triple bond: Triple bonds have a low bond strength.
Single bond: Single bonds are identified by a single hyphen (CC).
Double bond: Double bonds are indicated by two parallel lines (C = C).
Triple bond: Triple bonds are indicated by three parallel bars (C≡C).
Single Bond: Examples are alkanes such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, etc.
Double bond: Examples include ethylene, propene, carbonyl compounds (C = O), azo compounds (N = N), imines (C = N), and sulfoxides (S = O).
Triple Bond: Examples are nitrogen gas (N≡N), cyanide ion (C≡N), acetylene (CH≡CH) and carbon monoxide (C≡O).