Key difference - glucose vs. sucrose
Both glucose and sucrose are simple sugars . They are very sweet tasting compounds and dissolve well in water. These compounds have different uses because of their sweetness. The main difference between glucose and sucrose is that glucose is a monosaccharide while sucrose is a disaccharide . A monosaccharide occurs as a single molecule. A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharide molecules that are bound to each other by a glycosidic bond . Sucrose is a disaccharide that consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule.
Key areas covered
1. What is glucose - definition, structure, properties and uses 2. What is sucrose - definition, structure, properties and uses 3. What is the difference between glucose and sucrose - comparing the main differences
Key terms: disaccharide, fructose, glucose, glycosidic bond, monosaccharide, sucrose, sugar, sweetness
What is Glucose?
Glucose is a simple sugar with the chemical formula C 6 H 12 O 6 . It is a monosaccharide that is useful in forming important di- and polysaccharides . The molar mass of glucose is about 180 g / mol. It appears as a white powder. Glucose dissolves well in water. The melting point of this compound is between 146 ° C and 150 ° C, depending on the chemical structure of the molecule.
The structure of glucose can be given in different forms such as Fischer projection, Haworth projection and Chair conformation. Let us consider the Fischer projection, which is easier to study. The following picture shows the Fischer projection of the two forms of glucose. Glucose can be found in the form of D-glucose or L-glucose . They are enantiomers and are mirror images of each other.
The most common form is D-glucose, while L-glucose is less common. D-glucose is also called dextrose, which is an ingredient in commercially available foods. Glucose is an important compound used in the food industry; it also has medical uses, such as in the manufacture of medicines to treat patients with hypoglycemia.
Sources of glucose include most of the carbohydrates we consume. Glucose can either be contained in monosaccharide form or as a component of polysaccharides. Glucose is a good source of energy for athletes to gain energy.
What is sucrose
Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar with the chemical formula C 12 H 22 O 11 . It consists of two monosaccharide molecules. They are glucose and fructose. The connection between these two monosaccharides is known as the glycosidic bond. The molar mass of sucrose is approx. 342.29 g / mol. Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar molecule that occurs in solid form. Sucrose is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid compound.
The main source of sucrose is sugar cane . The sugar cane plant is processed into sucrose in the form of table salt, which we consume in our daily life. Sucrose has a high degree of sweetness. Hence, it is used as a sweetener for soft drinks and many other foods. However, the glycemic index of sucrose is comparatively low. This is due to the presence of 50% fructose in the structure of sucrose. Hence, sucrose has a minimal impact on blood sugar.
The melting point of sucrose is around 185 o C. When further heated, sucrose breaks down into invert sugar. Invert sugar contains glucose and fructose molecules. Hence, the breakdown of sucrose is the breakdown of sucrose molecules into glucose and fructose.
Difference Between Glucose and Sucrose
Glucose: Glucose is a simple sugar with the chemical formula C 6 H 12 O 6 .
Sucrose: Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar with the chemical formula C 12 H 22 O 11 .
Nature of the molecule
Glucose: Glucose is a monosaccharide.
Sucrose: Sucrose is a disaccharide.
Glucose: Glucose is a reducing sugar.
Sucrose: Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar.
Glucose: Glucose has no glycosidic bonds.
Sucrose: Sucrose has glycosidic bonds between glucose and fructose molecules.
Glucose: The molar mass of glucose is around 180 g / mol.
Sucrose: The molar mass of sucrose is approx. 342.29 g / mol.
Glucose: The melting point of glucose is around 146-150 ° C.
Sucrose: The melting point of sucrose is around 185 ° C.
Glucose: The glycemic index of glucose is relatively high for D-glucose.
Sucrose: The glycemic index of sucrose is relatively low.
Glucose and sucrose are very common types of sugar. They are sweet tasting compounds. Therefore, these compounds are used as sweeteners in the food industry. However, these sugars differ from each other in their chemical structure and other properties. The main difference between glucose and sucrose is that glucose is a monosaccharide while sucrose is a disaccharide.
1. “What is sucrose? - Function, structure and chemical equation. ”Study.com,available here .2. "D-glucose." National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database, US National Library of Medicine, available here. 3. "Sucrose." National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database, US National Library of Medicine, available here .
1. “DL-Glucose” by NEUROtiker - Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia 2. “Sucrose structural formula” by Bas - Homemade with sucrose-inkscape.svg from the Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia ( Color changed)